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Open AccessArticle

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citric Acid-Treated Wheat Germ Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

1
Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
2
Sajo DongA One Co., Ltd., Dangjin 31703, Korea
3
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
4
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 730; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu9070730
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
Until recently, fermentation was the only processing used to improve the functionality of wheat germ. The release of 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DMBQ) from hydroquinone glycosides during the fermentation process is considered a marker of quality control. Here, we treated wheat germ extract with citric acid (CWG) to release DMBQ and examined the anti-inflammatory activity of this extract using a lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage model. Treatment of wheat germ with citric acid resulted in detectable release of DMBQ but reduced total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared with untreated wheat germ extract (UWG). CWG inhibited secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12 and the synthesis of cyclooxygenase-2, while UWG only decreased IL-12 production. CWG and UWG induced high levels of anti-inflammatory IL-10 and heme oxygenase-1. CWG specifically inhibited phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and p38 kinase at 15 min after LPS stimulation. Our study showed that citric acid treatment enhanced the anti-inflammatory activity of wheat germ extract. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat germ; citric acid; inflammation; macrophage wheat germ; citric acid; inflammation; macrophage
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Jeong, H.-Y.; Choi, Y.-S.; Lee, J.-K.; Lee, B.-J.; Kim, W.-K.; Kang, H. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citric Acid-Treated Wheat Germ Extract in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages. Nutrients 2017, 9, 730.

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