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Biomarkers to Monitor Gluten-Free Diet Compliance in Celiac Patients

Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, c/Profesor García González 2, 41012 Sevilla, Spain
Unidad de Gastroenterología y Nutrición, Instituto Hispalense de Pediatría, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 46;
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 27 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for celiac disease (CD). There is a general consensus that strict GFD adherence in CD patients leads to full clinical and histological remission accompanied by improvement in quality of life and reduced long-term complications. Despite the importance of monitoring the GFD, there are no clear guidelines for assessing the outcome or for exploring its adherence. Available methods are insufficiently accurate to identify occasional gluten exposure that may cause intestinal mucosal damage. Serological tests are highly sensitive and specific for diagnosis, but do not predict recovery and are not useful for follow-up. The use of serial endoscopies, it is invasive and impractical for frequent monitoring, and dietary interview can be subjective. Therefore, the detection of gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) in feces and urine have been proposed as new non-invasive biomarkers to detect gluten intake and verify GFD compliance in CD patients. These simple immunoassays in human samples could overcome some key unresolved scientific and clinical problems in CD management. It is a significant advance that opens up new possibilities for the clinicians to evaluate the CD treatment, GFD compliance, and improvement in the quality of life of CD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; gluten immunogenic peptides; feces; urine celiac disease; gluten-free diet; gluten immunogenic peptides; feces; urine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moreno, M.D.L.; Rodríguez-Herrera, A.; Sousa, C.; Comino, I. Biomarkers to Monitor Gluten-Free Diet Compliance in Celiac Patients. Nutrients 2017, 9, 46.

AMA Style

Moreno MDL, Rodríguez-Herrera A, Sousa C, Comino I. Biomarkers to Monitor Gluten-Free Diet Compliance in Celiac Patients. Nutrients. 2017; 9(1):46.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moreno, María D.L., Alfonso Rodríguez-Herrera, Carolina Sousa, and Isabel Comino. 2017. "Biomarkers to Monitor Gluten-Free Diet Compliance in Celiac Patients" Nutrients 9, no. 1: 46.

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