Next Article in Journal
Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Enhances High Intensity Time Trial Performance Following Prolonged Cycling
Previous Article in Journal
Nutrient Intake Is Associated with Longevity Characterization by Metabolites and Element Profiles of Healthy Centenarians
Open AccessArticle

Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

Liggins Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 117609, Singapore
Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
Department of Maternal Fetal Medicine, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore 117549, Singapore
School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, A*STAR, Singapore 117609, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 574;
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
PDF [263 KB, uploaded 20 September 2016]


Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and long term health issues for both the mother and offspring. Previous research has demonstrated associations between maternal diet and GDM development, but evidence in Asian populations is limited. The objective of our study was to examine the cross-sectional relationship between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of GDM in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. Maternal diet was ascertained using 24-h dietary recalls from participants in the Growing up in Singapore towards healthy outcomes (GUSTO) study—a prospective mother-offspring cohort, and GDM was diagnosed according to 1999 World Health Organisation guidelines. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis, and multivariate regression analyses performed to assess the association with GDM. Of 909 participants, 17.6% were diagnosed with GDM. Three dietary patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit-rice-based-diet, a seafood-noodle-based-diet and a pasta-cheese-processed-meat-diet. After adjusting for confounding variables, the seafood-noodle-based-diet was associated with a lower likelihood of GDM (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)) = 0.74 (0.59, 0.93). The dietary pattern found to be associated with GDM in our study was substantially different to those reported previously in Western populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal nutrition; gestational diabetes; Asia; dietary patterns; pregnancy maternal nutrition; gestational diabetes; Asia; dietary patterns; pregnancy

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

De Seymour, J.; Chia, A.; Colega, M.; Jones, B.; McKenzie, E.; Shirong, C.; Godfrey, K.; Kwek, K.; Saw, S.-M.; Conlon, C.; Chong, Y.-S.; Baker, P.; Chong, M.F.F. Maternal Dietary Patterns and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 574.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top