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Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study)

Department of Human Nutrition and Hygiene, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Sloneczna 45F, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Organisation and Consumption Economics, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 159 C, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Trade and Services, Gdynia Maritime University, Morska 81-87, 81-225 Gdynia, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 796;
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
PDF [220 KB, uploaded 19 December 2016]


Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth) study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs). Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%), high-fat foods (22.4%), and fats (21.3%). Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy) dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs): 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively), and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy) and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy) patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and vegetables” pattern and were uncommon in girls with unhealthy dietary patterns. Although cautious interpretation is needed when considering restrictions in the overall quantity of food consumed, the results indicate that dietary restrictions of sugar, high-fat foods, fats, and starch may be considered predictors of both pro-healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns in the population of Polish girls. View Full-Text
Keywords: adolescents; dietary patterns; dietary restrictions; girls; principal component analysis adolescents; dietary patterns; dietary restrictions; girls; principal component analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Galinski, G.; Lonnie, M.; Kowalkowska, J.; Wadolowska, L.; Czarnocinska, J.; Jezewska-Zychowicz, M.; Babicz-Zielinska, E. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study). Nutrients 2016, 8, 796.

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