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Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats

1
The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-715, Korea
2
Department of Preventive medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 1, Hannydaero, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-715, Korea
3
Research Institute, Health-Love Co., Ltd., Anyang, 431-060, Korea
4
Department of Korean Obstetrics & Gynecology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, 704-123, Korea
5
Department of Histology and Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 1, Hannydaero, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-715, Korea
6
Department of Medical History & Literature Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, 305-811, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2622-2647; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7042622
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
Red clover (RC) shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg), respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg) compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: red clover extracts; dried pomegranate concentrate powder; 2:1 mixture; anti-climacteric effects; ovariectomy; rats red clover extracts; dried pomegranate concentrate powder; 2:1 mixture; anti-climacteric effects; ovariectomy; rats
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Kang, S.J.; Choi, B.R.; Kim, S.H.; Yi, H.Y.; Park, H.R.; Kim, D.C.; Choi, S.H.; Han, C.H.; Park, S.J.; Song, C.H.; Ku, S.K.; Lee, Y.J. Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2622-2647.

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