Next Article in Journal
Effects of Two Dietary Fibers as Part of Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC) Breakfasts on Perceived Appetite and Gut Hormones in Overweight Women
Previous Article in Journal
Altered Fetal Skeletal Muscle Nutrient Metabolism Following an Adverse In Utero Environment and the Modulation of Later Life Insulin Sensitivity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2015, 7(2), 1217-1244;

Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork EIRE, Ireland
Department of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork EIRE, Ireland
Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Cork EIRE, Ireland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 12 February 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [248 KB, uploaded 12 February 2015]


Human milk is recognised as the best form of nutrition for infants. However; in instances where breast-feeding is not possible, unsuitable or inadequate, infant milk formulae are used as breast milk substitutes. These formulae are designed to provide infants with optimum nutrition for normal growth and development and are available in either powdered or liquid forms. Powdered infant formula is widely used for convenience and economic reasons. However; current manufacturing processes are not capable of producing a sterile powdered infant formula. Due to their immature immune systems and permeable gastro-intestinal tracts, infants can be more susceptible to infection via foodborne pathogenic bacteria than other age-groups. Consumption of powdered infant formula contaminated by pathogenic microbes can be a cause of serious illness. In this review paper, we discuss the current manufacturing practices present in the infant formula industry, the pathogens of greatest concern, Cronobacter and Salmonella and methods of improving the intrinsic safety of powdered infant formula via the addition of antimicrobials such as: bioactive peptides; organic acids; probiotics and prebiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant milk formula; pathogens; Cronobacter; manufacturing strategies infant milk formula; pathogens; Cronobacter; manufacturing strategies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kent, R.M.; Fitzgerald, G.F.; Hill, C.; Stanton, C.; Ross, R.P. Novel Approaches to Improve the Intrinsic Microbiological Safety of Powdered Infant Milk Formula. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1217-1244.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top