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Suboptimal Plasma Long Chain n-3 Concentrations are Common among Adults in the United States, NHANES 2003–2004

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Nutrition Science and Advocacy, DSM Nutritional Products, 45 Waterview Blvd, Parsippany, NJ 07054, USA
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School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Rm 167, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
3
Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, 314 Savage Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10282-10289; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125534
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Population data on long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) status from biomarkers of dietary intake is lacking. The objectives were to describe plasma LCn-3 PUFA concentrations and compare them to concentrations associated with cardiovascular health and dietary recommendations for two servings of seafood/week. Fasting plasma fatty acids were measured among 1386 subjects ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2004. LCn-3 concentrations represent the sum of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid relative to total fatty acids (expressed as a percentage). Mean LCn-3 PUFA concentration was 2.07% (95% CI 1.95–2.19). Overall, 80.6% of participants had LCn-3 below concentrations recommended for cardiovascular health. Hispanic participants were the most likely to have LCn-3 PUFA below recommended levels. Nearly all participants (95.7%) had LCn-3 below concentrations associated with cardiovascular protection. Older participants (≥60 years) had higher LCn-3 PUFA concentrations than those aged 20–39 years but not aged 40–59 years. LCn-3 PUFA concentrations were lower for Hispanic participants relative to non-Hispanic black participants. Suboptimal LCn-3 concentrations are common among U.S. adults. These findings highlight the need to increase LCn-3 intake among Americans. View Full-Text
Keywords: omega-3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; NHANES; adequacy; dietary intake omega-3; polyunsaturated fatty acids; NHANES; adequacy; dietary intake
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Murphy, R.A.; Yu, E.A.; Ciappio, E.D.; Mehta, S.; McBurney, M.I. Suboptimal Plasma Long Chain n-3 Concentrations are Common among Adults in the United States, NHANES 2003–2004. Nutrients 2015, 7, 10282-10289.

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