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Open AccessArticle

Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
UNC Project Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Mzimba Road, Lilongwe, Malawi
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 2193, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2015, 7(1), 584-594;
Received: 15 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 January 2015 / Published: 14 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pregnancy)
Diet is a modifiable factor that can contribute to the health of pregnant women. In a sample of 577 HIV-positive pregnant women who completed baseline interviews for the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition Study in Lilongwe, Malawi, cluster analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify associations between the dietary patterns and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), arm muscle area (AMA), arm fat area (AFA), and hemoglobin at baseline. Three key dietary patterns were identified: animal-based, plant-based, and grain-based. Women with relatively greater wealth were more likely to consume the animal-based diet, which had the highest intake of energy, protein, and fat and was associated with higher hemoglobin levels compared to the other diets. Women with the lowest wealth were more likely to consume the grain-based diet with the lowest intake of energy, protein, fat, and iron and were more likely to have lower AFA than women on the animal-based and plant-based diets, but higher AMA compared to women on the animal-based diet. Pregnant, HIV-infected women in Malawi could benefit from nutritional support to ensure greater nutrient diversity during pregnancy, when women face increased nutrient demands to support fetal growth and development. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal diet; nutrition; pregnancy; HIV; anthropometry; Malawi; cluster analysis maternal diet; nutrition; pregnancy; HIV; anthropometry; Malawi; cluster analysis
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Ramlal, R.T.; Tembo, M.; King, C.C.; Ellington, S.; Soko, A.; Chigwenembe, M.; Chasela, C.; Jamieson, D.J.; Van der Horst, C.; Bentley, M.; Adair, L.; The BAN Study Team. Dietary Patterns and Maternal Anthropometry in HIV-Infected, Pregnant Malawian Women. Nutrients 2015, 7, 584-594.

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