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Article

Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States

1
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
2
School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2014, 6(7), 2523-2539; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6072523
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 20 June 2014 / Accepted: 27 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan diets and Human health)
This study aimed to develop and validate a de novo food frequency questionnaire for self-defined vegans in the United States. Diet histories from pilot samples of vegans and a modified ‘Block Method’ using seven selected nutrients of concern in vegan diet patterns, were employed to generate the questionnaire food list. Food frequency responses of 100 vegans from 19 different U.S. states were obtained via completed mailed questionnaires and compared to multiple telephone-conducted diet recall interviews. Computerized diet analyses were performed. Correlation coefficients, t-tests, rank, cross-tabulations, and probability tests were used to validate and compare intake estimates and dietary reference intake (DRI) assessment trends between the two methods. A 369-item vegan-specific questionnaire was developed with 252 listed food frequency items. Calorie-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.374 to 0.600 (p < 0.001) for all analyzed nutrients except calcium. Estimates, ranks, trends and higher-level participant percentile placements for Vitamin B12 were similar with both methods. Questionnaire intakes were higher than recalls for most other nutrients. Both methods demonstrated similar trends in DRI adequacy assessment (e.g., significantly inadequate vitamin D intake among vegans). This vegan-specific questionnaire can be a useful assessment tool for health screening initiatives in U.S. vegan communities. View Full-Text
Keywords: vegans; food frequency questionnaire; diet recalls; nutrient intake; Dietary Reference Intakes; vegan questionnaire; vegetarians; vitamin D; vitamin B12 vegans; food frequency questionnaire; diet recalls; nutrient intake; Dietary Reference Intakes; vegan questionnaire; vegetarians; vitamin D; vitamin B12
MDPI and ACS Style

Dyett, P.; Rajaram, S.; Haddad, E.H.; Sabate, J. Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States. Nutrients 2014, 6, 2523-2539. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6072523

AMA Style

Dyett P, Rajaram S, Haddad EH, Sabate J. Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States. Nutrients. 2014; 6(7):2523-2539. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6072523

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dyett, Patricia, Sujatha Rajaram, Ella H. Haddad, and Joan Sabate. 2014. "Evaluation of a Validated Food Frequency Questionnaire for Self-Defined Vegans in the United States" Nutrients 6, no. 7: 2523-2539. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6072523

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