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Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection

1
Center for Inflammatory, Immunity & Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
2
Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Anyang City, Gyeonggi-do 430-757, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2014, 6(2), 517-529; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6020517
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 17 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Ginseng herbal medicine has been known to have beneficial effects on improving human health. We investigated whether red ginseng extract (RGE) has preventive effects on influenza A virus infection in vivo and in vitro. RGE was found to improve survival of human lung epithelial cells upon influenza virus infection. Also, RGE treatment reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (IL-6, IL-8) probably in part through interference with the formation of reactive oxygen species by influenza A virus infection. Long-term oral administration of mice with RGE showed multiple immunomodulatory effects such as stimulating antiviral cytokine IFN-γ production after influenza A virus infection. In addition, RGE administration in mice inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the bronchial lumens. Therefore, RGE might have the potential beneficial effects on preventing influenza A virus infections via its multiple immunomodulatory functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Panax ginseng; influenza A virus; epithelial cells; oxidative stress; interferon Panax ginseng; influenza A virus; epithelial cells; oxidative stress; interferon
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.S.; Hwang, H.S.; Ko, E.-J.; Lee, Y.-N.; Kwon, Y.-M.; Kim, M.-C.; Kang, S.-M. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection. Nutrients 2014, 6, 517-529. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6020517

AMA Style

Lee JS, Hwang HS, Ko E-J, Lee Y-N, Kwon Y-M, Kim M-C, Kang S-M. Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection. Nutrients. 2014; 6(2):517-529. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6020517

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Jong S., Hye S. Hwang, Eun-Ju Ko, Yu-Na Lee, Young-Man Kwon, Min-Chul Kim, and Sang-Moo Kang. 2014. "Immunomodulatory Activity of Red Ginseng against Influenza A Virus Infection" Nutrients 6, no. 2: 517-529. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6020517

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