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Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance

1
Department of Immunobiology and Pharmacological Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama-shi, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
2
Toyama Prefectural Institute for Pharmaceutical Research, 17-1 Nakataikouyama, Imizu City, Toyama 939-0363, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3757-3778; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu5093757
Received: 6 August 2013 / Revised: 14 August 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Infectious Diseases)
Obesity-associated chronic tissue inflammation is a key contributing factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus, and a number of studies have clearly demonstrated that the immune system and metabolism are highly integrated. Recent advances in deciphering the various immune cells and signaling networks that link the immune and metabolic systems have contributed to our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity-associated inflammation. Other recent studies have suggested that pattern recognition receptors in the innate immune system recognize various kinds of endogenous and exogenous ligands, and have a crucial role in initiating or promoting obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Importantly, these mediators act on insulin target cells or on insulin-producing cells impairing insulin sensitivity and its secretion. Here, we discuss how various pattern recognition receptors in the immune system underlie the etiology of obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance, with a particular focus on the TLR (Toll-like receptor) family protein Radioprotective 105 (RP105)/myeloid differentiation protein-1 (MD-1). View Full-Text
Keywords: adipose tissue inflammation; cytokine; inflammasome; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; obesity; pattern recognition receptor; TLR; type 2 diabetes mellitus adipose tissue inflammation; cytokine; inflammasome; insulin resistance; metabolic syndrome; obesity; pattern recognition receptor; TLR; type 2 diabetes mellitus
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Watanabe, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Takatsu, K. Activation and Regulation of the Pattern Recognition Receptors in Obesity-Induced Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3757-3778.

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