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Article

Investigating the Relationship between Vitamin D and Persistent Symptoms Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection

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Department of Infectious Diseases, St James’s Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland
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Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
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Department of Medical Gerontology, School of Medicine, Trinity Translational Medicine Institute, Trinity College, Dublin 8, Ireland
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Department of Clinical Medicine, St James’s Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland
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Department of Physiotherapy, St James’s Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland
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The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA), Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
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Falls and Syncope Unit, Mercer’s Institute for Successful Ageing, St James’s Hospital, Dublin 8, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sara Gandini
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2430; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072430
Received: 16 June 2021 / Revised: 12 July 2021 / Accepted: 13 July 2021 / Published: 15 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
The emergence of persistent symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection, known as long COVID, is providing a new challenge to healthcare systems. The cardinal features are fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance. Vitamin D is known to have pleotropic effects far beyond bone health and is associated with immune modulation and autoimmunity. We hypothesize that vitamin D levels are associated with persistent symptoms following COVID-19. Herein, we investigate the relationship between vitamin D and fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance, assessed by the Chalder Fatigue Score, six-minute walk test and modified Borg scale. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationships. A total of 149 patients were recruited at a median of 79 days after COVID-19 illness. The median vitamin D level was 62 nmol/L, with n = 36 (24%) having levels 30–49 nmol/L and n = 14 (9%) with levels <30 nmol/L. Fatigue was common, with n = 86 (58%) meeting the case definition. The median Borg score was 3, while the median distance covered for the walk test was 450 m. No relationship between vitamin D and the measures of ongoing ill-health assessed in the study was found following multivariable regression analysis. These results suggest that persistent fatigue and reduced exercise tolerance following COVID-19 are independent of vitamin D. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; long COVID; fatigue; SARS-CoV-2 vitamin D; long COVID; fatigue; SARS-CoV-2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Townsend, L.; Dyer, A.H.; McCluskey, P.; O’Brien, K.; Dowds, J.; Laird, E.; Bannan, C.; Bourke, N.M.; Ní Cheallaigh, C.; Byrne, D.G.; Kenny, R.A. Investigating the Relationship between Vitamin D and Persistent Symptoms Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2430. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072430

AMA Style

Townsend L, Dyer AH, McCluskey P, O’Brien K, Dowds J, Laird E, Bannan C, Bourke NM, Ní Cheallaigh C, Byrne DG, Kenny RA. Investigating the Relationship between Vitamin D and Persistent Symptoms Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2430. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072430

Chicago/Turabian Style

Townsend, Liam, Adam H. Dyer, Patrick McCluskey, Kate O’Brien, Joanne Dowds, Eamon Laird, Ciaran Bannan, Nollaig M. Bourke, Cliona Ní Cheallaigh, Declan G. Byrne, and Rose A. Kenny 2021. "Investigating the Relationship between Vitamin D and Persistent Symptoms Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2430. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13072430

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