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Impact of Glucosamine Supplementation on Gut Health

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO 63301, USA
Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Increnovo, LLC, Milwaukee, WI 53202, USA
Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
Jamieson Wellness Inc., Windsor, ON N8N 5E7, Canada
Dr. Theo’s, Inc., Tucson, AZ 85750, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shannon L. Kelleher
Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2180;
Received: 20 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 22 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Glucosamine (GLU) is a natural compound found in cartilage, and supplementation with glucosamine has been shown to improve joint heath and has been linked to reduced mortality rates. GLU is poorly absorbed and may exhibit functional properties in the gut. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of glucosamine on gastrointestinal function as well as changes in fecal microbiota and metabolome. Healthy males (n = 6) and females (n = 5) (33.4 ± 7.7 years, 174.1 ± 12.0 cm, 76.5 ± 12.9 kg, 25.2 ± 3.1 kg/m2, n = 11) completed two supplementation protocols that each spanned three weeks separated by a washout period that lasted two weeks. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, participants ingested a daily dose of GLU hydrochloride (3000 mg GlucosaGreen®, TSI Group Ltd., Missoula, MT, USA) or maltodextrin placebo. Study participants completed bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaires in addition to providing a stool sample that was analyzed for fecal microbiota and metabolome at baseline and after the completion of each supplementation period. GLU significantly reduced stomach bloating and showed a trend towards reducing constipation and hard stools. Phylogenetic diversity (Faith’s PD) and proportions of Pseudomonadaceae, Peptococcaceae, and Bacillaceae were significantly reduced following GLU consumption. GLU supplementation significantly reduced individual, total branched-chain, and total amino acid excretion, with no glucosamine being detected in any of the fecal samples. GLU had no effect on fecal short-chain fatty acids levels. GLU supplementation provided functional gut health benefits and induced fecal microbiota and metabolome changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbiota; gut health; diversity; metabolomics; stool; gastrointestinal microbiota; gut health; diversity; metabolomics; stool; gastrointestinal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moon, J.M.; Finnegan, P.; Stecker, R.A.; Lee, H.; Ratliff, K.M.; Jäger, R.; Purpura, M.; Slupsky, C.M.; Marco, M.L.; Wissent, C.J.; Theodosakis, J.; Kerksick, C.M. Impact of Glucosamine Supplementation on Gut Health. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2180.

AMA Style

Moon JM, Finnegan P, Stecker RA, Lee H, Ratliff KM, Jäger R, Purpura M, Slupsky CM, Marco ML, Wissent CJ, Theodosakis J, Kerksick CM. Impact of Glucosamine Supplementation on Gut Health. Nutrients. 2021; 13(7):2180.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moon, Jessica M., Peter Finnegan, Richard A. Stecker, Hanna Lee, Kayla M. Ratliff, Ralf Jäger, Martin Purpura, Carolyn M. Slupsky, Maria L. Marco, Craig J. Wissent, Jason Theodosakis, and Chad M. Kerksick. 2021. "Impact of Glucosamine Supplementation on Gut Health" Nutrients 13, no. 7: 2180.

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