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Review

Fluid Intake Monitoring Systems for the Elderly: A Review of the Literature

1
The Kite Research Institute, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute—University Health Network, Toronto, ON M5G2A2, Canada
2
Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S3G9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William M. Adams
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 2092; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062092
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 13 June 2021 / Accepted: 17 June 2021 / Published: 19 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
Fluid intake monitoring is an essential component in preventing dehydration and overhydration, especially for the senior population. Numerous critical health problems are associated with poor or excessive drinking such as swelling of the brain and heart failure. Real-time systems for monitoring fluid intake will not only measure the exact amount consumed by the users, but could also motivate people to maintain a healthy lifestyle by providing feedback to encourage them to hydrate regularly throughout the day. This paper reviews the most recent solutions to automatic fluid intake monitoring both commercially and in the literature. The available technologies are divided into four categories: wearables, surfaces with embedded sensors, vision- and environmental-based solutions, and smart containers. A detailed performance evaluation was carried out considering detection accuracy, usability and availability. It was observed that the most promising results came from studies that used data fusion from multiple technologies, compared to using an individual technology. The areas that need further research and the challenges for each category are discussed in detail. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking monitoring; liquid intake; hydration monitoring; fluid intake detection drinking monitoring; liquid intake; hydration monitoring; fluid intake detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cohen, R.; Fernie, G.; Roshan Fekr, A. Fluid Intake Monitoring Systems for the Elderly: A Review of the Literature. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2092. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062092

AMA Style

Cohen R, Fernie G, Roshan Fekr A. Fluid Intake Monitoring Systems for the Elderly: A Review of the Literature. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):2092. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062092

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cohen, Rachel, Geoff Fernie, and Atena Roshan Fekr. 2021. "Fluid Intake Monitoring Systems for the Elderly: A Review of the Literature" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 2092. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13062092

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