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Article

The Association of Low Vitamin K Status with Mortality in a Cohort of 138 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19

1
Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Copenhagen University Hospital—Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg, DK-2000 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
3
Center of Research and Disruption of Infectious Diseases, Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital—Amager and Hvidovre, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark
4
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital—Amager and Hvidovre, DK-2650 Hvidovre, Denmark
5
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Copenhagen University Hospital—Rigshospitalet, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vassilios Liakopoulos
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1985; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061985
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 31 May 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 9 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
It has recently been hypothesized that vitamin K could play a role in COVID-19. We aimed to test the hypotheses that low vitamin K status is a common characteristic of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared to population controls and that low vitamin K status predicts mortality in COVID-19 patients. In a cohort of 138 COVID-19 patients and 138 population controls, we measured plasma dephosphorylated-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla Protein (dp-ucMGP), which reflects the functional vitamin K status in peripheral tissue. Forty-three patients died within 90 days from admission. In patients, levels of dp-ucMGP differed significantly between survivors (mean 877; 95% CI: 778; 995) and non-survivors (mean 1445; 95% CI: 1148; 1820). Furthermore, levels of dp-ucMGP (pmol/L) were considerably higher in patients (mean 1022; 95% CI: 912; 1151) compared to controls (mean 509; 95% CI: 485; 540). Cox regression survival analysis showed that increasing levels of dp-ucMGP (reflecting low vitamin K status) were associated with higher mortality risk (sex- and age-adjusted hazard ratio per doubling of dp-ucMGP was 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03; 2.24). The association attenuated and became statistically insignificant after adjustment for co-morbidities (sex, age, CVD, diabetes, BMI, and eGFR adjusted hazard ratio per doubling of dp-ucMGP was 1.22, 95% CI: 0.82; 1.80). In conclusion, we found that low vitamin K status was associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 in sex- and age-adjusted analyses, but not in analyses additionally adjusted for co-morbidities. Randomized clinical trials would be needed to clarify a potential role, if any, of vitamin K in the course of COVID-19. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin K; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Matrix Gla Protein; elastic fiber; thrombosis vitamin K; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Matrix Gla Protein; elastic fiber; thrombosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Linneberg, A.; Kampmann, F.B.; Israelsen, S.B.; Andersen, L.R.; Jørgensen, H.L.; Sandholt, H.; Jørgensen, N.R.; Thysen, S.M.; Benfield, T. The Association of Low Vitamin K Status with Mortality in a Cohort of 138 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1985. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061985

AMA Style

Linneberg A, Kampmann FB, Israelsen SB, Andersen LR, Jørgensen HL, Sandholt H, Jørgensen NR, Thysen SM, Benfield T. The Association of Low Vitamin K Status with Mortality in a Cohort of 138 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1985. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061985

Chicago/Turabian Style

Linneberg, Allan, Freja Bach Kampmann, Simone Bastrup Israelsen, Liv Rabøl Andersen, Henrik Løvendahl Jørgensen, Håkon Sandholt, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Sanne Marie Thysen, and Thomas Benfield. 2021. "The Association of Low Vitamin K Status with Mortality in a Cohort of 138 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1985. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061985

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