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Reduction in Maternal Energy Intake during Lactation Decreased Maternal Body Weight and Concentrations of Leptin, Insulin and Adiponectin in Human Milk without Affecting Milk Production, Milk Macronutrient Composition or Infant Growth

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School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5064, Australia
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Women and Kids Theme, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), Adelaide 5000, Australia
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Discipline of Paediatrics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
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School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
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Centre for Applied Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
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Mathematics and Statistics, Murdoch University, Perth 6150, Australia
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Department of Physiology, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia
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Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Kintore Avenue, Adelaide 5000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hans Demmelmair
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1892; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061892
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 25 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 31 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition in Women)
Maternal diet has the potential to affect human milk (HM) composition, but very few studies have directly assessed the effect of maternal diets on HM composition. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of improving dietary quality in lactating women over 2 weeks on the concentrations of macronutrients and metabolic hormones in HM. The secondary aims were to assess the impact of the dietary intervention on 24 h milk production, maternal body composition and infant growth. Fifteen women completed a 1-week baseline period followed by a 2-week dietary intervention phase targeted towards reducing fat and sugar intake. Maternal anthropometric and body composition and infant growth measurements were performed weekly. Total 24 h milk production was measured before and after the dietary intervention, and HM samples were collected daily. Maternal intakes of energy (−33%), carbohydrate (−22%), sugar (−29%), fat (−54%) and saturated fat (−63%) were significantly reduced during the dietary intervention. HM insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations were 10–25% lower at the end of the dietary intervention, but HM concentrations of macronutrients were unaffected. Maternal body weight (−1.8%) and fat mass (−6.3%) were significantly reduced at the end of the dietary intervention, but there were no effects on 24 h milk production or infant growth. These results suggest that reducing maternal energy, carbohydrate, fat and sugar intake over a 2-week period is associated with significant reductions in HM insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations. These changes may be secondary to decreases in maternal weight and fat mass. The limited studies to date that have investigated the association between metabolic hormone concentrations in HM and infant growth raise the possibility that the changes in HM composition observed in the current study could impact infant growth and adiposity, but further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: human milk; lactation; diet; macronutrients; hormones; leptin; adiponectin; insulin human milk; lactation; diet; macronutrients; hormones; leptin; adiponectin; insulin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leghi, G.E.; Netting, M.J.; Lai, C.T.; Narayanan, A.; Dymock, M.; Rea, A.; Wlodek, M.E.; Geddes, D.T.; Muhlhausler, B.S. Reduction in Maternal Energy Intake during Lactation Decreased Maternal Body Weight and Concentrations of Leptin, Insulin and Adiponectin in Human Milk without Affecting Milk Production, Milk Macronutrient Composition or Infant Growth. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1892. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061892

AMA Style

Leghi GE, Netting MJ, Lai CT, Narayanan A, Dymock M, Rea A, Wlodek ME, Geddes DT, Muhlhausler BS. Reduction in Maternal Energy Intake during Lactation Decreased Maternal Body Weight and Concentrations of Leptin, Insulin and Adiponectin in Human Milk without Affecting Milk Production, Milk Macronutrient Composition or Infant Growth. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1892. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061892

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leghi, Gabriela E., Merryn J. Netting, Ching T. Lai, Ardra Narayanan, Michael Dymock, Alethea Rea, Mary E. Wlodek, Donna T. Geddes, and Beverly S. Muhlhausler 2021. "Reduction in Maternal Energy Intake during Lactation Decreased Maternal Body Weight and Concentrations of Leptin, Insulin and Adiponectin in Human Milk without Affecting Milk Production, Milk Macronutrient Composition or Infant Growth" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1892. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061892

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