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Characterization of an Agarophyton chilense Oleoresin Containing PPARγ Natural Ligands with Insulin-Sensitizing Effects in a C57Bl/6J Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity and Antioxidant Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

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Postgraduate Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5110566, Chile
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Center for Aging and Regeneration (CARE), Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8320000, Chile
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Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 8320000, Chile
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Institute of Biomedical Sciences (ICB), Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8320000, Chile
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Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, Faculty of Life Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago 8320000, Chile
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Quintay Marine Research Center (CIMARQ), Faculty of Life Sciences, Universidad Andres Bello, Valparaiso, Quintay 2480000, Chile
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Center of Applied Ecology and Sustainability (CAPES), Santiago 8331150, Chile
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Instituto Milenio en Socio-Ecología Costera (SECOS), Santiago 8370251, Chile
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Faculty of Sciences, School of Biotechnology, Universidad Santo Tomas, Santiago 8320000, Chile
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cristian Del Bo’
Nutrients 2021, 13(6), 1828; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061828
Received: 31 March 2021 / Revised: 19 May 2021 / Accepted: 20 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Metabolism)
The biomedical potential of the edible red seaweed Agarophyton chilense (formerly Gracilaria chilensis) has not been explored. Red seaweeds are enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids, which are known natural ligands of the PPARγ nuclear receptor. PPARγ is the molecular target of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), drugs used as insulin sensitizers to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medical use of TZDs is limited due to undesired side effects, a problem that has triggered the search for selective PPARγ modulators (SPPARMs) without the TZD side effects. We produced Agarophyton chilense oleoresin (Gracilex®), which induces PPARγ activation without inducing adipocyte differentiation, similar to SPPARMs. In a diet-induced obesity model of male mice, we showed that treatment with Gracilex® improves insulin sensitivity by normalizing altered glucose and insulin parameters. Gracilex® is enriched in palmitic acid, arachidonic acid, oleic acid, and lipophilic antioxidants such as tocopherols and β-carotene. Accordingly, Gracilex® possesses antioxidant activity in vitro and increased antioxidant capacity in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans. These findings support the idea that Gracilex® represents a good source of natural PPARγ ligands and antioxidants with the potential to mitigate metabolic disorders. Thus, its nutraceutical value in humans warrants further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural lipids; seaweeds; Agarophyton chilense; PPARγ; insulin resistance; obesity; antioxidants; Caenorhabditis elegans; nutraceuticals; Gracilex® natural lipids; seaweeds; Agarophyton chilense; PPARγ; insulin resistance; obesity; antioxidants; Caenorhabditis elegans; nutraceuticals; Gracilex®
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinto, C.; Ibáñez, M.R.; Loyola, G.; León, L.; Salvatore, Y.; González, C.; Barraza, V.; Castañeda, F.; Aldunate, R.; Contreras-Porcia, L.; Fuenzalida, K.; Bronfman, F.C. Characterization of an Agarophyton chilense Oleoresin Containing PPARγ Natural Ligands with Insulin-Sensitizing Effects in a C57Bl/6J Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity and Antioxidant Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061828

AMA Style

Pinto C, Ibáñez MR, Loyola G, León L, Salvatore Y, González C, Barraza V, Castañeda F, Aldunate R, Contreras-Porcia L, Fuenzalida K, Bronfman FC. Characterization of an Agarophyton chilense Oleoresin Containing PPARγ Natural Ligands with Insulin-Sensitizing Effects in a C57Bl/6J Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity and Antioxidant Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nutrients. 2021; 13(6):1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061828

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pinto, Claudio, María R. Ibáñez, Gloria Loyola, Luisa León, Yasmin Salvatore, Carla González, Víctor Barraza, Francisco Castañeda, Rebeca Aldunate, Loretto Contreras-Porcia, Karen Fuenzalida, and Francisca C. Bronfman 2021. "Characterization of an Agarophyton chilense Oleoresin Containing PPARγ Natural Ligands with Insulin-Sensitizing Effects in a C57Bl/6J Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity and Antioxidant Activity in Caenorhabditis elegans" Nutrients 13, no. 6: 1828. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13061828

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