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Food Allergy and Intolerance: A Narrative Review on Nutritional Concerns

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Unit, San Giuseppe Moscati Hospital, 83100 Avellino, Italy
Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry “Scuola Medica Salernitana”, University of Salerno, 84081 Baronissi, Italy
Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Isabel Comino
Nutrients 2021, 13(5), 1638;
Received: 7 April 2021 / Revised: 5 May 2021 / Accepted: 10 May 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Pearls and Pitfalls of Gastrointestinal Diseases)
Adverse food reactions include immune-mediated food allergies and non-immune-mediated intolerances. However, this distinction and the involvement of different pathogenetic mechanisms are often confused. Furthermore, there is a discrepancy between the perceived vs. actual prevalence of immune-mediated food allergies and non-immune reactions to food that are extremely common. The risk of an inappropriate approach to their correct identification can lead to inappropriate diets with severe nutritional deficiencies. This narrative review provides an outline of the pathophysiologic and clinical features of immune and non-immune adverse reactions to food—along with general diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Special emphasis is placed on specific nutritional concerns for each of these conditions from the combined point of view of gastroenterology and immunology, in an attempt to offer a useful tool to practicing physicians in discriminating these diverging disease entities and planning their correct management. We conclude that a correct diagnostic approach and dietary control of both immune- and non-immune-mediated food-induced diseases might minimize the nutritional gaps in these patients, thus helping to improve their quality of life and reduce the economic costs of their management. View Full-Text
Keywords: food allergy; food intolerance; nutrition; nutritional concerns food allergy; food intolerance; nutrition; nutritional concerns
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gargano, D.; Appanna, R.; Santonicola, A.; De Bartolomeis, F.; Stellato, C.; Cianferoni, A.; Casolaro, V.; Iovino, P. Food Allergy and Intolerance: A Narrative Review on Nutritional Concerns. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1638.

AMA Style

Gargano D, Appanna R, Santonicola A, De Bartolomeis F, Stellato C, Cianferoni A, Casolaro V, Iovino P. Food Allergy and Intolerance: A Narrative Review on Nutritional Concerns. Nutrients. 2021; 13(5):1638.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gargano, Domenico, Ramapraba Appanna, Antonella Santonicola, Fabio De Bartolomeis, Cristiana Stellato, Antonella Cianferoni, Vincenzo Casolaro, and Paola Iovino. 2021. "Food Allergy and Intolerance: A Narrative Review on Nutritional Concerns" Nutrients 13, no. 5: 1638.

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