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Exclusive Breastfeeding Is Not Associated with Maternal–Infant Bonding in Early Postpartum, Considering Depression, Anxiety, and Parity

1
Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510, Japan
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8510, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Johannes B. van Goudoever
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1184; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041184
Received: 22 February 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition Methodology & Assessment)
It is important to clarify how the breastfeeding method affects women’s mental health, and how women’s mental health affects the breastfeeding method in the early postpartum period when major depression and other psychiatric problems are most likely to occur. This study aimed to examine this bidirectional relationship in the early postpartum period. Participants were 2020 postpartum women who completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale (MIBS). We obtained data for participants’ breastfeeding method for four weeks after childbirth. We performed a path analysis with factors including breastfeeding method (exclusive breastfeeding or non-exclusive breastfeeding), parity (primipara or multipara), the two HADS subscales (anxiety and depression), and the two MIBS subscales (lack of affection and anger and rejection). The path analysis showed that breastfeeding method did not significantly affect depression, anxiety, and maternal–infant bonding in the early postpartum period. Women with higher anxiety tended to use both formula-feeding and breastfeeding. Our study suggests that exclusive breastfeeding is not associated with maternal-fetal bonding in early postpartum, considering depression, anxiety, and parity. View Full-Text
Keywords: breastfeeding; maternal–infant bonding; depression; anxiety; early postpartum breastfeeding; maternal–infant bonding; depression; anxiety; early postpartum
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fukui, N.; Motegi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Hashijiri, K.; Tsuboya, R.; Ogawa, M.; Sugai, T.; Egawa, J.; Enomoto, T.; Someya, T. Exclusive Breastfeeding Is Not Associated with Maternal–Infant Bonding in Early Postpartum, Considering Depression, Anxiety, and Parity. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1184. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041184

AMA Style

Fukui N, Motegi T, Watanabe Y, Hashijiri K, Tsuboya R, Ogawa M, Sugai T, Egawa J, Enomoto T, Someya T. Exclusive Breastfeeding Is Not Associated with Maternal–Infant Bonding in Early Postpartum, Considering Depression, Anxiety, and Parity. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1184. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fukui, Naoki; Motegi, Takaharu; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Hashijiri, Koyo; Tsuboya, Ryusuke; Ogawa, Maki; Sugai, Takuro; Egawa, Jun; Enomoto, Takayuki; Someya, Toshiyuki. 2021. "Exclusive Breastfeeding Is Not Associated with Maternal–Infant Bonding in Early Postpartum, Considering Depression, Anxiety, and Parity" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1184. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041184

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