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Review

Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes in the MENA Region: A Review of the Evidence

Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon
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Academic Editor: Antonio Brunetti
Nutrients 2021, 13(4), 1060; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041060
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 21 March 2021 / Accepted: 21 March 2021 / Published: 24 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Lipid Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes)
The alarmingly rising trend of type 2 diabetes constitutes a major global public health challenge particularly in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) region where the prevalence is among the highest in the world with a projection to increase by 96% by 2045. The economic boom in the MENA region over the past decades has brought exceptionally rapid shifts in eating habits characterized by divergence from the traditional Mediterranean diet towards a more westernized unhealthy dietary pattern, thought to be leading to the dramatic rises in obesity and non-communicable diseases. Research efforts have brought a greater understanding of the different pathways through which diet and obesity may affect diabetes clinical outcomes, emphasizing the crucial role of dietary interventions and weight loss in the prevention and management of diabetes. The purpose of this review is to explore the mechanistic pathways linking obesity with diabetes and to summarize the most recent evidence on the association of the intake of different macronutrients and food groups with the risk of type 2 diabetes. We also summarize the most recent evidence on the effectiveness of different macronutrient manipulations in the prevention and management of diabetes while highlighting the possible underlying mechanisms of action and latest evidence-based recommendations. We finally discuss the need to adequately integrate dietetic services in diabetes care specific to the MENA region and conclude with recommendations to improve dietetic care for diabetes in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes; dietary management; MENA region; obesity; insulin resistance; insulin glucose homeostasis type 2 diabetes; dietary management; MENA region; obesity; insulin resistance; insulin glucose homeostasis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hwalla, N.; Jaafar, Z.; Sawaya, S. Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes in the MENA Region: A Review of the Evidence. Nutrients 2021, 13, 1060. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041060

AMA Style

Hwalla N, Jaafar Z, Sawaya S. Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes in the MENA Region: A Review of the Evidence. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1060. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041060

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hwalla, Nahla, Zeinab Jaafar, and Sally Sawaya. 2021. "Dietary Management of Type 2 Diabetes in the MENA Region: A Review of the Evidence" Nutrients 13, no. 4: 1060. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041060

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