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Review

Gluten and Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield/INSIGENO, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
2
Academic Departments of Neurosciences and Neuroradiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Guandalini
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 572; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020572
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 9 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Related Disorders: Time to Move from Gut to Brain)
An expanding body of literature is examining connections between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and dietary interventions. While a number of specialist diets have been suggested as beneficial in ASD, gluten has received particularly close attention as a potentially exacerbating factor. Reports exist suggesting a beneficial effect of the gluten-free diet (GFD) in ameliorating behavioural and intellectual problems associated with ASD, while epidemiological research has also shown a comorbidity between ASD and coeliac disease. However, both caregivers and clinicians have expressed an uncertainty of the value of people with ASD going gluten-free, and as the GFD otherwise receives considerable public attention a discussion which focuses specifically on the interaction between ASD and gluten is warranted. In this review we discuss the historical context of ASD and gluten-related studies, and expand this to include an overview of epidemiological links, hypotheses of shared pathological mechanisms, and ultimately the evidence around the use and adoption of the GFD in people with ASD. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; gluten sensitivity; celiac disease; coeliac disease; review autism spectrum disorder; gluten sensitivity; celiac disease; coeliac disease; review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Croall, I.D.; Hoggard, N.; Hadjivassiliou, M. Gluten and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Nutrients 2021, 13, 572. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020572

AMA Style

Croall ID, Hoggard N, Hadjivassiliou M. Gluten and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):572. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020572

Chicago/Turabian Style

Croall, Iain D., Nigel Hoggard, and Marios Hadjivassiliou. 2021. "Gluten and Autism Spectrum Disorder" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 572. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020572

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