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Review

Efficacy of Popular Diets Applied by Endurance Athletes on Sports Performance: Beneficial or Detrimental? A Narrative Review

1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Istanbul Medeniyet University, 34862 Istanbul, Turkey
2
Division of Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada
3
Medbase St. Gallen, am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
4
Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David C. Nieman and Ajmol Ali
Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020491
Received: 11 December 2020 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 29 January 2021 / Published: 2 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Nutrition)
Endurance athletes need a regular and well-detailed nutrition program in order to fill their energy stores before training/racing, to provide nutritional support that will allow them to endure the harsh conditions during training/race, and to provide effective recovery after training/racing. Since exercise-related gastrointestinal symptoms can significantly affect performance, they also need to develop strategies to address these issues. All these factors force endurance athletes to constantly seek a better nutritional strategy. Therefore, several new dietary approaches have gained interest among endurance athletes in recent decades. This review provides a current perspective to five popular diet approaches: (a) vegetarian diets, (b) high-fat diets, (c) intermittent fasting diets, (d) gluten-free diet, and (e) low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diets. We reviewed scientific studies published from 1983 to January 2021 investigating the impact of these popular diets on the endurance performance and health aspects of endurance athletes. We also discuss all the beneficial and harmful aspects of these diets, and offer key suggestions for endurance athletes to consider when following these diets. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; fat; carbohydrate; protein diet; fat; carbohydrate; protein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Devrim-Lanpir, A.; Hill, L.; Knechtle, B. Efficacy of Popular Diets Applied by Endurance Athletes on Sports Performance: Beneficial or Detrimental? A Narrative Review. Nutrients 2021, 13, 491. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020491

AMA Style

Devrim-Lanpir A, Hill L, Knechtle B. Efficacy of Popular Diets Applied by Endurance Athletes on Sports Performance: Beneficial or Detrimental? A Narrative Review. Nutrients. 2021; 13(2):491. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020491

Chicago/Turabian Style

Devrim-Lanpir, Aslı, Lee Hill, and Beat Knechtle. 2021. "Efficacy of Popular Diets Applied by Endurance Athletes on Sports Performance: Beneficial or Detrimental? A Narrative Review" Nutrients 13, no. 2: 491. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13020491

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