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Open AccessArticle

Milk and Fermented Milk Intake and Parkinson’s Disease: Cohort Study

1
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics, Uppsala University, SE-751 22 Uppsala, Sweden
3
Unit of Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12092763
Received: 25 August 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Milk and fermented milk consumption has been linked to health and mortality but the association with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is uncertain. We conducted a study to investigate whether milk and fermented milk intakes are associated with incident PD. This cohort study included 81,915 Swedish adults (with a mean age of 62 years) who completed a questionnaire, including questions about milk and fermented milk (soured milk and yogurt) intake, in 1997. PD cases were identified through linkage with the Swedish National Patient and Cause of Death Registers. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were obtained from Cox proportional hazards regression models. During a mean follow-up of 14.9 years, 1251 PD cases were identified in the cohort. Compared with no or low milk consumption (<40 mL/day), the hazard ratios of PD across quintiles of milk intake were 1.29 (95% CI 1.07, 1.56) for 40–159 mL/day, 1.19 (95% CI 0.99, 1.42) for 160–200 mL/day, 1.29 (95% CI 1.08, 1.53) for 201–400 mL/day, and 1.14 (95% CI 0.93, 1.40) for >400 mL/day. Fermented milk intake was not associated with PD. We found a weak association between milk intake and increased risk of PD but no dose–response relationship. Fermented milk intake was not associated with increased risk of PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; Parkinson’s disease; risk factors milk; Parkinson’s disease; risk factors
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Olsson, E.; Byberg, L.; Höijer, J.; Kilander, L.; Larsson, S.C. Milk and Fermented Milk Intake and Parkinson’s Disease: Cohort Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2763.

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