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Comment published on 27 November 2020, see Nutrients 2020, 12(12), 3642.

Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients

Department of Internal Medicine V, University of Heidelberg, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany
Department of Internal Medicine IV, University of Heidelberg, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2757;
Received: 9 August 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 10 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses an enormous challenge to health care systems throughout the world. Without causal treatment, identification of modifiable prognostic factors may help to improve outcomes. To explore possible associations of vitamin D (VitD) status with disease severity and survival, we studied 185 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and treated at our center. VitD status at first presentation was assessed retrospectively using accredited laboratory methods. VitD deficiency was defined as serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D level < 12 ng/mL (<30 nM). Primary endpoint was severe course of disease (i.e., need for invasive mechanical ventilation and/or death, IMV/D). Within a median observation period of 66 days (range 2–92), 23 patients required IMV. A total of 28 patients had IMV/D, including 16 deaths. Ninety-three (50%) patients required hospitalization (inpatient subgroup). A total of 41 (22%) patients were VitD deficient. When adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities, VitD deficiency was associated with higher risk of IMV/D and death (HR 6.12, 95% CI 2.79–13.42, p < 0.001 and HR 14.73, 95% CI 4.16–52.19, p < 0.001, respectively). Similar correlations were observed in the inpatient subgroup. Our study demonstrates an association between VitD deficiency and severity/mortality of COVID-19, highlighting the need for interventional studies on VitD supplementation in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outcome; severity; retrospective vitamin D; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outcome; severity; retrospective
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MDPI and ACS Style

Radujkovic, A.; Hippchen, T.; Tiwari-Heckler, S.; Dreher, S.; Boxberger, M.; Merle, U. Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2757.

AMA Style

Radujkovic A, Hippchen T, Tiwari-Heckler S, Dreher S, Boxberger M, Merle U. Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients. 2020; 12(9):2757.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Radujkovic, Aleksandar, Theresa Hippchen, Shilpa Tiwari-Heckler, Saida Dreher, Monica Boxberger, and Uta Merle. 2020. "Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients" Nutrients 12, no. 9: 2757.

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