Popular beliefs regarding a mother’s diet during lactation have a significant impact on breastfeeding practices among mothers, as well on breastfeeding counseling among healthcare providers worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess mothers’ and medical professionals’ knowledge and opinions on the “lactating mother’s diet”. An electronic survey, prepared in Polish, was administered to healthcare providers, as well as mothers who have breastfed a child. The chi-square test, logistic regression, and Mann Whitney U test were used for statistical calculations. Out of a total of 1180 responses received, 1159 were analyzed, and 21 were excluded because they did not meet the inclusion criteria. The survey was completed by 407 (35%) medical healthcare providers and 752 (65%) lactating mothers in non-medical professions. In total, the study included 1074 mothers who have breastfed a child, and 29.14% of them reported that they eliminated certain foods from their diet when breastfeeding. There was no statistically significant difference in the responses received from mothers and medical staff providing maternal care (for each of 17 products, e.g., steak tartare, sushi, legumes, dairy products, p
> 0.05 by the Mann-Whitney test). However, a logistic regression revealed some significant correlations with other variables (e.g., duration of lactation). The respondents revealed an appropriate level of knowledge on nutrition during lactation and the majority of participants neither adhered to nor recommended a prophylactic elimination diet. Among other evaluated factors, the experience of following an elimination diet affected respondents’ knowledge of nutrition during breastfeeding. Both mothers and healthcare providers require good nutritional education.
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