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Open AccessReview

Textural Changes by Mastication and Proper Food Texture for Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia

1
Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Aichi 470-1192, Japan
2
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hamamatsu City Rehabilitation Hospital, Hamamatsu 433-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1613; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061613
Received: 27 April 2020 / Revised: 18 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 30 May 2020
Bolus texture is a key factor for safe swallowing in patients with dysphagia since an improper texture may result in aspiration and/or pharyngeal residue. This article discusses swallowing bolus texture from two key aspects: the textural change of solid food by mastication and the current standardized definition of food texture in Japan. When swallowing a liquid bolus, the texture is mostly maintained from ingestion to swallow onset. For solid food, however, the food is crushed by chewing and mixed with saliva before swallowing; the texture of the ingested food is modified to an easily swallowable form at swallow onset by mastication. Understanding the mechanism of mastication and its assessment are therefore important in deciding the proper diet for dysphagic patients. As standardized criteria for classifying the texture of food and liquid are essential as well, this report also describes the Japanese Dysphagia Diet 2013 that is commonly used as the standardized index for dysphagic diets in Japan. View Full-Text
Keywords: mastication; oral function; modified diet; viscosity; Japanese Dysphagia Diet 2013 mastication; oral function; modified diet; viscosity; Japanese Dysphagia Diet 2013
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Matsuo, K.; Fujishima, I. Textural Changes by Mastication and Proper Food Texture for Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1613.

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