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Open AccessArticle

HD-FFQ to Detect Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities for a Multiethnic Asian Dialysis Population

1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
2
School of Healthcare Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
3
Department of Medicine, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
4
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
5
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202-0340, USA
6
School of Biosciences, Taylors’ University, Subang Jaya 47500, Malaysia
7
Research Center of Excellence (RCoE) Nutrition and Non-communicable Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061585
Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 27 May 2020 / Published: 28 May 2020
A rapid and reliable tool appropriate to quantifying macronutrient and micronutrient intakes in diets consumed by Malaysian hemodialysis (HD) patients is lacking. We aimed to develop and validate a novel HD-food frequency questionnaire (HD-FFQ) to assess habitual nutritional intakes of HD patients with diverse ethnic backgrounds. This study was conducted in three phases. In Phase I, a HD-FFQ comprising 118 food items was developed using 3-day diet recalls (3DDR) from 388 HD patients. Phase II was the face and content validation using the Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI). After successfully developing the FFQ, Phase III tested relative validation against a reference method, the 3DDR. Results from Phase III showed that the mean difference for absolute intakes of nutrients assessed by HD-FFQ and 3DDR were significant (p < 0.05). However, there was a significant correlation between the HD-FFQ and reference method ranging from 0.35–0.47 (p < 0.05). Cross-quartile classification showed that <10% of patients were grossly misclassified. In conclusion, the HD-FFQ has an acceptable relative validity in assessing and ranking the dietary intake of the HD patients in Malaysia. View Full-Text
Keywords: food frequency questionnaire; hemodialysis; dietary assessment; validity; multi-ethnic food intake food frequency questionnaire; hemodialysis; dietary assessment; validity; multi-ethnic food intake
MDPI and ACS Style

Md Ali, M.S.; Yeak, Z.-W.; Khor, B.-H.; Sahathevan, S.; Sualeheen, A.; Lim, J.-H.; Adanan, N.I.H.; Abdul Gafor, A.H.; Zakaria, N.F.; Khosla, P.; Karupaiah, T.; Daud, Z.A.M. HD-FFQ to Detect Nutrient Deficiencies and Toxicities for a Multiethnic Asian Dialysis Population. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1585.

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