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Open AccessArticle

Gender Differences in the Association between Dietary Pattern and the Incidence of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

by SuJin Song 1,†, Jiwon Kim 2,† and Jihye Kim 2,*
1
Department of Food and Nutrition, Hannam University, Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Department of Medical Nutrition, Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 252; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020252
Received: 16 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
We examined gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension, using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. A total of 5090 participants (2457 men and 2633 women) aged 40–69 years without hypertension at baseline were selected. Dietary patterns were obtained using factor analysis based on 26 food groups, evaluated by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or the use of antihypertensive medication using the biennial measurements. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension. Four dietary patterns were extracted: coffee, fat, and sweets; prudent; whole grains and legumes; and traditional (men)/Western (women). Women in the highest tertile of the whole grains and legumes pattern scores showed a lower risk of incident hypertension compared with those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval = 0.59–1.00, p-trend = 0.048). Other dietary patterns were not associated with hypertension in either men or women. A diet rich in whole grains and legumes is inversely associated with the risk of hypertension in Korean women, suggesting a gender difference in the association between diet and hypertension. View Full-Text
Keywords: whole grain and legumes pattern; hypertension; gender difference; Korean adult whole grain and legumes pattern; hypertension; gender difference; Korean adult
MDPI and ACS Style

Song, S.; Kim, J.; Kim, J. Gender Differences in the Association between Dietary Pattern and the Incidence of Hypertension in Middle-Aged and Older Adults. Nutrients 2018, 10, 252.

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