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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020241

The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review

1
School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
2
Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
3
School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
4
Priority Research Centre in Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
5
Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
6
Gomeroi Gaaynggal Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia
7
Department of Rural Health, School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Tamworth, NSW 2340, Australia
8
Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 15 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Renal Function)
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Abstract

The intrauterine environment is critical for fetal growth and organ development. Evidence from animal models indicates that the developing kidney is vulnerable to suboptimal maternal nutrition and changes in health status. However, evidence from human studies are yet to be synthesised. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to systematically review current research on the relationship between maternal nutrition during pregnancy and offspring kidney structure and function in humans. A search of five databases identified 9501 articles, of which three experimental and seven observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Nutrients reviewed to date included vitamin A (n = 3), folate and vitamin B12 (n = 2), iron (n = 1), vitamin D (n = 1), total energy (n = 2) and protein (n = 1). Seven studies were assessed as being of “positive” and three of “neutral” quality. A variety of populations were studied, with limited studies investigating maternal nutrition during pregnancy, while measurements of offspring kidney outcomes were diverse across studies. There was a lack of consistency in the timing of follow-up for offspring kidney structure and/or function assessments, thus limiting comparability between studies. Deficiencies in maternal folate, vitamin A, and total energy during pregnancy were associated with detrimental impacts on kidney structure and function, measured by kidney volume, proteinuria, eGFRcystC and mean creatinine clearance in the offspring. Additional experimental and longitudinal prospective studies are warranted to confirm this relationship, especially in Indigenous populations where the risk of renal disease is greater. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; nutrition; obesity; diabetes; kidney disease pregnancy; nutrition; obesity; diabetes; kidney disease
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Lee, Y.Q.; Collins, C.E.; Gordon, A.; Rae, K.M.; Pringle, K.G. The Relationship between Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy and Offspring Kidney Structure and Function in Humans: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2018, 10, 241.

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