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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 203;

Toll-Like Receptors: Regulators of the Immune Response in the Human Gut

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., R & D Human Nutrition and Health, P.O. Box 2676, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are powerful molecular regulators by which the immune system may “sense” the environment and protect the host from pathogens or endogenous threats. In mammalian cells, several TLRs were identified with a tissue and cell type-specific distribution. Understanding the functions of specific TLRs is crucial for the development and discovery of compounds useful to maintaining or re-establishing homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Due to their relevance in regulating the inflammatory response in the GIT, we will focus here on TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5. In particular, we describe (a) the molecular pathways activated by the stimulation of these receptors with their known bacterial ligands; (b) the non-bacterial ligands known to interact directly with TLR2 and TLR4 and their soluble forms. The scope of this minireview is to highlight the importance of bacterial and non-bacterial compounds in affecting the gut immune functions via the activation of the TLRs. View Full-Text
Keywords: TLR2; TLR4; TLR5; immune system; gastrointestinal tract; bacterial ligands TLR2; TLR4; TLR5; immune system; gastrointestinal tract; bacterial ligands

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Hug, H.; Mohajeri, M.H.; La Fata, G. Toll-Like Receptors: Regulators of the Immune Response in the Human Gut. Nutrients 2018, 10, 203.

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