Next Article in Journal
Dietary Magnesium and Cardiovascular Disease: A Review with Emphasis in Epidemiological Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Viewpoint: A Contributory Role of Shell Ginger (Alpinia zerumbet) for Human Longevity in Okinawa, Japan?
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020167

The Association between Iron and Vitamin D Status in Female Elite Athletes

1
Department of Nutrition Physiology and Dietetics, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Physiology, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Sport, National Research Institute, Trylogii 2/16, 01-982 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [465 KB, uploaded 31 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

Vitamin D may influence iron metabolism and erythropoiesis, whereas iron is essential for vitamin D synthesis. We examined whether vitamin D deficiencies (VDD) are associated with reduced iron status and whether progressive iron deficiency (ID) is accompanied by inferior vitamin D status. The study included 219 healthy female (14–34 years old) athletes. VDD was defined as a 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. ID was classified based on ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and blood morphology indices. The percentage of ID subjects was higher (32%) in the VDD group than in the 25(OH)D sufficient group (11%) (χ2 = 10.6; p = 0.001). The percentage of VDD subjects was higher (75%) in the ID than in the normal iron status group (48%) (χ2 = 15.6; p = 0.001). The odds ratios (ORs) for VDD increased from 1.75 (95% CI 1.02–2.99; p = 0.040) to 4.6 (95% CI 1.81–11.65; p = 0.001) with progressing iron deficiency. ID was dependent on VDD in both VDD groups (25(OH)D < 75 and < 50 nmol/L). The ID group had a lower 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.000). The VDD group had lower ferritin (p = 0.043) and iron (p = 0.004) concentrations and higher values of TIBC (p = 0.016) and sTfR (p = 0.001). The current results confirm the association between vitamin D and iron status in female athletes, although it is difficult to assess exactly which of these nutrients exerts a stronger influence over the other. View Full-Text
Keywords: iron status; 25(OH)D; vitamin D status; mutual relationships; healthy female; athletes iron status; 25(OH)D; vitamin D status; mutual relationships; healthy female; athletes
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Malczewska-Lenczowska, J.; Sitkowski, D.; Surała, O.; Orysiak, J.; Szczepańska, B.; Witek, K. The Association between Iron and Vitamin D Status in Female Elite Athletes. Nutrients 2018, 10, 167.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top