Next Article in Journal
Exploring the Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Its Relationship with Individual Lifestyle: The Role of Healthy Behaviors, Pro-Environmental Behaviors, Income, and Education
Previous Article in Journal
Large Variations in Declared Serving Sizes of Packaged Foods in Australia: A Need for Serving Size Standardisation?
Open AccessReview

The Pharmabiotic Approach to Treat Hyperammonemia

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Institute for Medical Science, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Chonbuk 54907, Korea
2
JINIS BDRD institute, JINIS Biopharmaceuticals Co., 913 Gwahak-Ro, Bongdong, Wanju, Chonbuk 55321, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020140
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 28 January 2018
Ammonia is constantly produced as a metabolic waste from amino acid catabolism in mammals. Ammonia, the toxic waste metabolite, is resolved in the liver where the urea cycle converts free ammonia to urea. Liver malfunctions cause hyperammonemia that leads to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions, such as brain edema, convulsions, and coma. The current treatments for hyperammonemia, such as antibiotics or lactulose, are designed to decrease the intestinal production of ammonia and/or its absorption into the body and are not effective, besides being often accompanied by side effects. In recent years, increasing evidence has shown that modifications of the gut microbiota could be used to treat hyperammonemia. Considering the role of the gut microbiota and the physiological characteristics of the intestine, the removal of ammonia from the intestine by modulating the gut microbiota would be an ideal approach to treat hyperammonemia. In this review, we discuss the significance of hyperammonemia and its related diseases and the efficacy of the current management methods for hyperammonemia to understand the mechanism of ammonia transport in the human body. The possibility to use the gut microbiota as pharmabiotics to treat hyperammonemia and its related diseases is also explored. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperammonemia; pharmabiotics; ammonia; gut microbiota hyperammonemia; pharmabiotics; ammonia; gut microbiota
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, J.; Lkhagva, E.; Chung, H.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Hong, S.-T. The Pharmabiotic Approach to Treat Hyperammonemia. Nutrients 2018, 10, 140.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop