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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(9), 966; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9090966

A Satellite-Based Assessment of the Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in the Optically Shallow Basin of Lake Biwa

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
2
Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540, Japan
3
Lake Biwa Environmental Research Institute (LBERI), Otsu 520-0022, Japan
4
Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
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Abstract

Assessing the abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), particularly in shallow lakes, is essential for effective lake management activities. In the present study we applied satellite remote sensing (a Landsat-8 image) in order to evaluate the SAV coverage area and its biomass for the peak growth period, which is mainly in September or October (2013 to 2016), in the eutrophic and shallow south basin of Lake Biwa. We developed and validated a satellite-based water transparency retrieval algorithm based on the linear regression approach (R2 = 0.77) to determine the water clarity (2013–2016), which was later used for SAV classification and biomass estimation. For SAV classification, we used Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA), a Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), and a binary decision tree, giving an overall classification accuracy of 86.5% and SAV classification accuracy of 76.5% (SAV kappa coefficient 0.74), based on in situ measurements. For biomass estimation, a new Spectral Decomposition Algorithm was developed. The satellite-derived biomass (R2 = 0.79) for the SAV classified area gives an overall root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.26 kg Dry Weight (DW) m-2. The mapped SAV coverage area was 20% and 40% in 2013 and 2016, respectively. Estimated SAV biomass for the mapped area shows an increase in recent years, with values of 3390 t (tons, dry weight) in 2013 as compared to 4550 t in 2016. The maximum biomass density (4.89 kg DW m-2) was obtained for a year with high water transparency (September 2014). With the change in water clarity, a slow change in SAV growth was noted from 2013 to 2016. The study shows that water clarity is important for the SAV detection and biomass estimation using satellite remote sensing in shallow eutrophic lakes. The present study also demonstrates the successful application of the developed satellite-based approach for SAV biomass estimation in the shallow eutrophic lake, which can be tested in other lakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV); water transparency; SAV biomass; remote sensing; shallow lake submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV); water transparency; SAV biomass; remote sensing; shallow lake
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yadav, S.; Yoneda, M.; Susaki, J.; Tamura, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Yamashiki, Y. A Satellite-Based Assessment of the Distribution and Biomass of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in the Optically Shallow Basin of Lake Biwa. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 966.

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