To reduce the size and cost of an integrated infrared (IR) and green airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB) system, and improve the accuracy of the green ALB system, this study proposes a method to accurately determine water surface and water bottom heights using a single green laser corrected by the near water surface penetration (NWSP) model. The factors that influence the NWSP of green laser are likewise analyzed. In addition, an NWSP modeling method is proposed to determine the relationship between NWSP and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of the surface layer, scanning angle of a laser beam and sensor height. The water surface and water bottom height models are deduced by considering NWSP and using only green laser based on the measurement principle of the IR laser and green laser, as well as employing the relationship between NWSP and the time delay of the surface return of the green laser. Lastly, these methods and models are applied to a practical ALB measurement. Standard deviations of 3.0, 5.3, and 1.3 cm are obtained by the NWSP, water-surface height, and water-bottom height models, respectively. Several beneficial conclusions and recommendations are drawn through the experiments and discussions.
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