Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Assessment of Atmospheric Correction Methods for Sentinel-2 MSI Images Applied to Amazon Floodplain Lakes
Previous Article in Journal
Dimensionality Reduction of Hyperspectral Image with Graph-Based Discriminant Analysis Considering Spectral Similarity
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatio-Temporal Change of Lake Water Extent in Wuhan Urban Agglomeration Based on Landsat Images from 1987 to 2015
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

School of Instrumentation Science and Opto-Electronics Engineering, Beihang University, No. 37 Xueyuan Rd., Haidian, Beijing 100191, China
Key Laboratory of Space Ocean Remote Sensing and Application, State Oceanic Administration, No. 8 Da Huisi Rd., Haidian, Beijing 100081, China
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Linhai Li, Yunlin Zhang, Claudia Giardino, Deepak R. Mishra and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(4), 324;
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 22 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Optics and Water Colour Remote Sensing)
PDF [21837 KB, uploaded 31 March 2017]


This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water. View Full-Text
Keywords: wavy water; polarized refraction; skylight polarization; oceanic optics wavy water; polarized refraction; skylight polarization; oceanic optics

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhou, G.; Wang, J.; Xu, W.; Zhang, K.; Ma, Z. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 324.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top