Next Article in Journal
Using Simplified Thermal Inertia to Determine the Theoretical Dry Line in Feature Space for Evapotranspiration Retrieval
Previous Article in Journal
The Extraction of Vegetation Points from LiDAR Using 3D Fractal Dimension Analyses
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Phenological Response of an Arizona Dryland Forest to Short-Term Climatic Extremes

Western Geographic Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 520 North Park Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
Department of Geography and Environmental Sustainability, The University of Oklahoma, 100 East Boyd St., Norman, OK 73019, USA
Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 310 West Campus Dr., Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alfredo R. Huete and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Remote Sens. 2015, 7(8), 10832-10855;
Received: 12 February 2015 / Revised: 12 August 2015 / Accepted: 13 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
PDF [2742 KB, uploaded 26 August 2015]


Baseline information about dryland forest phenology is necessary to accurately anticipate future ecosystem shifts. The overarching goal of our study was to investigate the variability of vegetation phenology across a dryland forest landscape in response to climate alterations. We analyzed the influence of site characteristics and climatic conditions on the phenological patterns of an Arizona, USA, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest during a five-year period (2005 to 2009) that encompassed extreme wet and dry precipitation regimes. We assembled 80 synthetic Landsat images by applying the spatial and temporal adaptive reflectance fusion method (STARFM) to 500 m MODIS and 30 m Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data. We tested relationships between site characteristics and the timing of peak Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to assess the effect of climatic stress on the green-up of individual pixels during or after the summer monsoon. Our results show that drought-induced stress led to a fragmented phenological response that was highly dependent on microsite parameters, as both the spatial autocorrelation of peak timing and the number of significant site variables increased during the drought year. Pixels at lower elevations and with higher proportions of herbaceous vegetation were more likely to exhibit dynamic responses to changes in precipitation conditions. Our study demonstrates the complexity of responses within dryland forest ecosystems and highlights the need for standardized monitoring of phenology trends in these areas. The spatial and temporal variability of phenological signals may provide a quantitative solution to the problem of how to evaluate dryland land surface trends across time. View Full-Text
Keywords: dryland forests; phenology; STARFM; data fusion; Landsat; MODIS dryland forests; phenology; STARFM; data fusion; Landsat; MODIS

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Walker, J.; De Beurs, K.; Wynne, R.H. Phenological Response of an Arizona Dryland Forest to Short-Term Climatic Extremes. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 10832-10855.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top