A thorough review of available literature was conducted to inform of advancements in mobile LIDAR technology, techniques, and current and emerging applications in transportation. The literature review touches briefly on the basics of LIDAR technology followed by a more in depth description of current mobile LIDAR trends, including system components and software. An overview of existing quality control procedures used to verify the accuracy of the collected data is presented. A collection of case studies provides a clear description of the advantages of mobile LIDAR, including an increase in safety and efficiency. The final sections of the review identify current challenges the industry is facing, the guidelines that currently exist, and what else is needed to streamline the adoption of mobile LIDAR by transportation agencies. Unfortunately, many of these guidelines do not cover the specific challenges and concerns of mobile LIDAR use as many have been developed for airborne LIDAR acquisition and processing. From this review, there is a lot of discussion on “what” is being done in practice, but not a lot on “how” and “how well” it is being done. A willingness to share information going forward will be important for the successful use of mobile LIDAR.