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Remote Sens. 2013, 5(11), 5907-5925;

A Water Index for SPOT5 HRG Satellite Imagery, New South Wales, Australia, Determined by Linear Discriminant Analysis

1,2,* and 1,3
Joint Remote Sensing Research Program, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Australian Wetlands, Rivers and Landscapes Centre, School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South, Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Office of Environment and Heritage, P.O. Box 856, Alstonville, NSW 2477, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 7 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 13 November 2013
Full-Text   |   PDF [6151 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]


A new water index for SPOT5 High Resolution Geometrical (HRG) imagery normalized to surface reflectance, called the linear discriminant analysis water index (LDAWI), was created using training data from New South Wales (NSW), Australia and the multivariate statistical method of linear discriminant analysis classification. The index uses all four image bands, and is better at separating water and non-water pixels than the two commonly used variations of the normalized difference water index (NDWI), which each only use two image bands. Compared across 2,400 validation pixels, from six images spanning four years, the LDAWI attained an overall accuracy of 98%, a producer’s accuracy for water of 100%, and a user’s accuracy for water of 97%. These accuracy measures increase to 99%, 100% and 98% if cloud shadow and topographic shadow masks are applied to the imagery. The NDWI achieved consistently lower accuracies, with the NDWI calculated from the green and shortwave infrared (IR) bands performing slightly better (91% overall accuracy) than the NDWI calculated from the green and near IR bands (89% overall accuracy). The LDAWI is now being routinely used on an archive of over 2,000 images from across NSW, as part of an operational environmental monitoring program. View Full-Text
Keywords: SPOT5 HRG; water; linear discriminant analysis SPOT5 HRG; water; linear discriminant analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Fisher, A.; Danaher, T. A Water Index for SPOT5 HRG Satellite Imagery, New South Wales, Australia, Determined by Linear Discriminant Analysis. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 5907-5925.

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