Field Spectroscopy for Assisting Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Water Treatment Reservoirs Using Atmospheric Corrected Satellite Remotely Sensed Imagery
- to identify the spectral region in which chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can be retrieved using field spectroscopy;
- to develop a novel methodology to measure the reflectance at the water surface using field spectroscopy;
- to develop regression models based upon the spectral features to monitor the water quality in large water treatment reservoirs in West London using satellite imagery acquired during water sampling;
- to use such regression models for further testing using atmospheric corrected satellite imagery.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Area
2.3. Spectro-Radiometric Measurements
- Rz is the reflectance at a depth z
- R0 is the reflectance at zero depth
- K is the irradiance attenuation coefficient or vertical extinction coefficient.
|Reservoir||Date||Chl-a (μg/L)||POC (μg/L)||In-band reflectance %|
|TM1||TM 2||TM 3||TM 4|
|Queen Elizabeth II||12-10-1998||3.70||404||2.87||4.79||2.94||0.27|
|King George VI||12-10-1998||9.43||521||1.02||1.55||0.74||0.06|
2.4. Water Quality
- algal biomass (chlorophyll-a and POC),
- concentration of suspended matter (SS, turbidity)
- organic matter (BOD)
- dissolved oxygen (DO)
- Carry out spectro-radiometric measurements as described in Section 2.3
- Obtain water samples in situ near the sampling stations of each reservoir acquired concurrently with the spectro-radiometric measurements.
- In order to identify possible regions of the spectrum in which the water quality parameters could be identified, the first step was to investigate how the water quality parameters were related to each other and to perform a correlation analysis.
- Provide categorization of the water quality variables into groups based on their properties.
- Determine the possible predictors for both chlorophyll-a and POC using a linear regression analysis between the mean reflectance values across the spectrum measured by the GER1500 field spectro-radiometer and the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (μg/L) and POC (μg/L).
- The wavelength in which a highest correlation coefficient obtained by the linear regression analysis applied in the previous step corresponds to the optimal wavelength that chl-a and POC can be retrieved. Apply the developed regression models to archived and recent Landsat TM/ETM+ image acquisitions for further calibration and validation after applying the darkest pixel atmospheric correction algorithm.
2.6. Atmospheric Correction
- ρtg is the target reflectance at the ground
- Lds is the dark object radiance at the sensor
- Lts is the target radiance at the sensor,
- = E0 × d is the solar irradiance at the top of the atmosphere corrected for earth-sun distance variation i.e., E0, d
- θ0 is the solar zenith angle
3. Results and Discussion
|Wavelength (nm)||r2||Wavelength (nm)||r2|
- for chlorophyll-a, 400–450 nm (with r2 0.80–0.60) and 730–735 (with r2 ≅ 0.60)
- for POC, 400–530 nm (with r2 0.80–0.60) and 728–735 (with r2 ≅ 0.60).
- chl-a: Chlorophyll-a concentration in μg/L
- TM1 is the reflectance from Landsat-5 TM1 (after atmospheric correction)
- POC: Particulate organic carbon concentration in μg/L
- TM1 is the reflectance from Landsat-5 TM1 (after atmospheric correction)
- for chlorophyll-a, TM band 1 (0.45–0.52 µm)
- for POC, TM bands 1 (0.45–0.52 µm) and 2 (0.52–0.60 µm).
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Hadjimitsis, D.G.; Clayton, C. Field Spectroscopy for Assisting Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Water Treatment Reservoirs Using Atmospheric Corrected Satellite Remotely Sensed Imagery. Remote Sens. 2011, 3, 362-377. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs3020362
Hadjimitsis DG, Clayton C. Field Spectroscopy for Assisting Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Water Treatment Reservoirs Using Atmospheric Corrected Satellite Remotely Sensed Imagery. Remote Sensing. 2011; 3(2):362-377. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs3020362Chicago/Turabian Style
Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G., and Chris Clayton. 2011. "Field Spectroscopy for Assisting Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Water Treatment Reservoirs Using Atmospheric Corrected Satellite Remotely Sensed Imagery" Remote Sensing 3, no. 2: 362-377. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs3020362