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Article

Toward a Standardized Encoding of Remote Sensing Geo-Positioning Sensor Models

by 1, 1,*, 2 and 3,*
1
Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2
Standardisation Department, Institut National de l’Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN), 94165 Saint Mandé, France
3
Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 20030, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(9), 1530; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091530
Received: 23 March 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing Image Processing)
Geolocation information is an important feature of remote sensing image data that is captured through a variety of passive or active observation sensors, such as push-broom electro-optical sensor, synthetic aperture radar (SAR), light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and sound navigation and ranging (SONAR). As a fundamental processing step to locate an image, geo-positioning is used to determine the ground coordinates of an object from image coordinates. A variety of sensor models have been created to describe geo-positioning process. In particular, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has defined the Sensor Model Language (SensorML) specification in its Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative to describe sensors including the geo-positioning process. It has been realized using syntax from the extensible markup language (XML). Besides, two standards defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO 19130-1 and ISO 19130-2, introduced a physical sensor model, a true replacement model, and a correspondence model for the geo-positioning process. However, a standardized encoding for geo-positioning sensor models is still missing for the remote sensing community. Thus, the interoperability of remote sensing data between application systems cannot be ensured. In this paper, a standardized encoding of remote sensing geo-positioning sensor models is introduced. It is semantically based on ISO 19130-1 and ISO 19130-2, and syntactically based on OGC SensorML. It defines a cross mapping of the sensor models defined in ISO 19130-1 and ISO 19130-2 to the SensorML, and then proposes a detailed encoding method to finalize the XML schema (an XML schema here is the structure to define an XML document), which will become a profile of OGC SensorML. It seamlessly unifies the sensor models defined in ISO 19130-1, ISO 19130-2, and OGC SensorML. By enabling a standardized description of sensor models used to produce remote sensing data, this standard is very promising in promoting data interoperability, mobility, and integration in the remote sensing domain. View Full-Text
Keywords: geo-positioning; sensor model; OGC SensorML 2.0; ISO 19130 series; standard geo-positioning; sensor model; OGC SensorML 2.0; ISO 19130 series; standard
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, M.; Bai, Y.; Devys, E.; Di, L. Toward a Standardized Encoding of Remote Sensing Geo-Positioning Sensor Models. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1530. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091530

AMA Style

Jin M, Bai Y, Devys E, Di L. Toward a Standardized Encoding of Remote Sensing Geo-Positioning Sensor Models. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(9):1530. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091530

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jin, Meng, Yuqi Bai, Emmanuel Devys, and Liping Di. 2020. "Toward a Standardized Encoding of Remote Sensing Geo-Positioning Sensor Models" Remote Sensing 12, no. 9: 1530. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12091530

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