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An Empirical Model to Estimate Abundance of Nanophase Metallic Iron (npFe0) in Lunar Soils
Open AccessArticle

Estimation of Noise in the In Situ Hyperspectral Data Acquired by Chang’E-4 and Its Effects on Spectral Analysis of Regolith

1
Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
2
Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083, China
3
State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101603
Received: 14 April 2020 / Revised: 14 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 18 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lunar Remote Sensing and Applications)
The Chang’E-4 (CE-4) spacecraft landed successfully on the far side of the Moon on 3 January 2019, and the rover Yutu-2 has explored the lunar surface since then. The visible and near-infrared imaging spectrometer (VNIS) onboard the rover has acquired numerous spectra, providing unprecedented insight into the composition of the lunar surface. However, the noise in these spectral data and its effects on spectral interpretation are not yet assessed. Here we analyzed repeated measurements over the same area at the lunar surface to estimate the signal–noise ratio (SNR) of the VNIS spectra. Using the results, we assessed the effects of noise on the estimation of band centers, band depths, FeO content, optical maturity (OMAT), mineral abundances, and submicroscopic metallic iron (SMFe). The data observed at solar altitudes <20° exhibit low SNR (25 dB), whereas the data acquired at 20°–35° exhibit higher SNR (35–37 dB). We found differences in band centers due to noise to be ~6.2 and up to 28.6 nm for 1 and 2 μm absorption, respectively. We also found that mineral abundances derived using the Hapke model are affected by noise, with maximum standard deviations of 6.3%, 2.4%, and 7.0% for plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine, respectively. Our results suggest that noise has significant impacts on the CE-4 spectra, which should be considered in the spectral analysis and geologic interpretation of lunar exploration data. View Full-Text
Keywords: the Moon; Chang’E-4; hyperspectral data; noise estimation; spectral interpretation the Moon; Chang’E-4; hyperspectral data; noise estimation; spectral interpretation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, H.; Lin, Y.; Wei, Y.; Xu, R.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Y.; Hu, S.; Yang, W.; He, Z. Estimation of Noise in the In Situ Hyperspectral Data Acquired by Chang’E-4 and Its Effects on Spectral Analysis of Regolith. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1603.

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