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Article

Navigation Engine Design for Automated Driving Using INS/GNSS/3D LiDAR-SLAM and Integrity Assessment

1
Departement of Geomatics Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, No. 1, Daxue Road, East District, Tainan City 701, Taiwan
2
Departement of Geomatics Engineering, The University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(10), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101564
Received: 14 March 2020 / Revised: 10 May 2020 / Accepted: 13 May 2020 / Published: 14 May 2020
Automated driving has made considerable progress recently. The multisensor fusion system is a game changer in making self-driving cars possible. In the near future, multisensor fusion will be necessary to meet the high accuracy needs of automated driving systems. This paper proposes a multisensor fusion design, including an inertial navigation system (INS), a global navigation satellite system (GNSS), and light detection and ranging (LiDAR), to implement 3D simultaneous localization and mapping (INS/GNSS/3D LiDAR-SLAM). The proposed fusion structure enhances the conventional INS/GNSS/odometer by compensating for individual drawbacks such as INS-drift and error-contaminated GNSS. First, a highly integrated INS-aiding LiDAR-SLAM is presented to improve the performance and increase the robustness to adjust to varied environments using the reliable initial values from the INS. Second, the proposed fault detection exclusion (FDE) contributes SLAM to eliminate the failure solutions such as local solution or the divergence of algorithm. Third, the SLAM position velocity acceleration (PVA) model is used to deal with the high dynamic movement. Finally, an integrity assessment benefits the central fusion filter to avoid failure measurements into the update process based on the information from INS-aiding SLAM, which increases the reliability and accuracy. Consequently, our proposed multisensor design can deal with various situations such as long-term GNSS outage, deep urban areas, and highways. The results show that the proposed method can achieve an accuracy of under 1 meter in challenging scenarios, which has the potential to contribute the autonomous system. View Full-Text
Keywords: inertial navigation system and global navigation satellite system (INS/GNSS); light detection and ranging (LiDAR); simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) inertial navigation system and global navigation satellite system (INS/GNSS); light detection and ranging (LiDAR); simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chiang, K.-W.; Tsai, G.-J.; Li, Y.-H.; Li, Y.; El-Sheimy, N. Navigation Engine Design for Automated Driving Using INS/GNSS/3D LiDAR-SLAM and Integrity Assessment. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 1564. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101564

AMA Style

Chiang K-W, Tsai G-J, Li Y-H, Li Y, El-Sheimy N. Navigation Engine Design for Automated Driving Using INS/GNSS/3D LiDAR-SLAM and Integrity Assessment. Remote Sensing. 2020; 12(10):1564. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101564

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chiang, Kai-Wei, Guang-Je Tsai, Yu-Hua Li, You Li, and Naser El-Sheimy. 2020. "Navigation Engine Design for Automated Driving Using INS/GNSS/3D LiDAR-SLAM and Integrity Assessment" Remote Sensing 12, no. 10: 1564. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12101564

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