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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(3), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11030344

Estimation of Leaf Inclination Angle in Three-Dimensional Plant Images Obtained from Lidar

Graduate School, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
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Received: 24 January 2019 / Accepted: 8 February 2019 / Published: 9 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
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Abstract

The leaf inclination angle is a fundamental variable for determining the plant profile. In this study, the leaf inclination angle was estimated automatically from voxel-based three-dimensional (3D) images obtained from lidar (light detection and ranging). The distribution of the leaf inclination angle within a tree was then calculated. The 3D images were first converted into voxel coordinates. Then, a plane was fitted to some voxels surrounding the point (voxel) of interest. The inclination angle and azimuth angle were obtained from the normal. The measured leaf inclination angle and its actual value were correlated and indicated a high correlation (R2 = 0.95). The absolute error of the leaf inclination angle estimation was 2.5°. Furthermore, the leaf inclination angle can be estimated even when the distance between the lidar and leaves is about 20 m. This suggests that the inclination angle estimation of leaves in a top part is reliable. Then, the leaf inclination angle distribution within a tree was calculated. The difference in the leaf inclination angle distribution between different parts within a tree was observed, and a detailed tree structural analysis was conducted. We found that this method enables accurate and efficient leaf inclination angle distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: azimuth angle; distribution; image processing; leaf inclination; leaf orientation; lidar; modelling; plant; plant structural parameter; three-dimensional (3D) azimuth angle; distribution; image processing; leaf inclination; leaf orientation; lidar; modelling; plant; plant structural parameter; three-dimensional (3D)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Itakura, K.; Hosoi, F. Estimation of Leaf Inclination Angle in Three-Dimensional Plant Images Obtained from Lidar. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 344.

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