Full waveform inversion (FWI) can yield high resolution images and has been applied in Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for around 20 years. However, appropriate selection of the initial models is important in FWI because such an inversion is highly nonlinear. The conventional way to obtain the initial models for GPR FWI is ray-based tomogram inversion which suffers from several inherent shortcomings. In this paper, we develop a Laplace domain waveform inversion to obtain initial models for the time domain FWI. The gradient expression of the Laplace domain waveform inversion is deduced via the derivation of a logarithmic object function. Permittivity and conductivity are updated by using the conjugate gradient method. Using synthetic examples, we found that the value of the damping constant in the inversion cannot be too large or too small compared to the dominant frequency of the radar data. The synthetic examples demonstrate that the Laplace domain waveform inversion provide slightly better initial models for the time domain FWI than the ray-based inversion. Finally, we successfully applied the algorithm to one field data set, and the inverted results of the Laplace-based FWI show more details than that of the ray-based FWI.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited