Next Article in Journal
RFim: A Real-Time Inundation Extent Model for Large Floodplains Based on Remote Sensing Big Data and Water Level Observations
Previous Article in Journal
Monitoring Green Infrastructure for Natural Water Retention Using Copernicus Global Land Products
Article Menu
Issue 13 (July-1) cover image

Export Article

Version is current.

Open AccessArticle

Strawberry Yield Prediction Based on a Deep Neural Network Using High-Resolution Aerial Orthoimages

College of Biosystem Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science, University of Tennessee institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Wimauma, FL 33598, USA
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Those authors contributed equally to this paper.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(13), 1584;
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 4 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Agriculture and Vegetation)
PDF [6908 KB, uploaded 4 July 2019]


Strawberry growers in Florida suffer from a lack of efficient and accurate yield forecasts for strawberries, which would allow them to allocate optimal labor and equipment, as well as other resources for harvesting, transportation, and marketing. Accurate estimation of the number of strawberry flowers and their distribution in a strawberry field is, therefore, imperative for predicting the coming strawberry yield. Usually, the number of flowers and their distribution are estimated manually, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and subjective. In this paper, we develop an automatic strawberry flower detection system for yield prediction with minimal labor and time costs. The system used a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (DJI Technology Co., Ltd., Shenzhen, China) equipped with an RGB (red, green, blue) camera to capture near-ground images of two varieties (Sensation and Radiance) at two different heights (2 m and 3 m) and built orthoimages of a 402 m2 strawberry field. The orthoimages were automatically processed using the Pix4D software and split into sequential pieces for deep learning detection. A faster region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN), a state-of-the-art deep neural network model, was chosen for the detection and counting of the number of flowers, mature strawberries, and immature strawberries. The mean average precision (mAP) was 0.83 for all detected objects at 2 m heights and 0.72 for all detected objects at 3 m heights. We adopted this model to count strawberry flowers in November and December from 2 m aerial images and compared the results with a manual count. The average deep learning counting accuracy was 84.1% with average occlusion of 13.5%. Using this system could provide accurate counts of strawberry flowers, which can be used to forecast future yields and build distribution maps to help farmers observe the growth cycle of strawberry fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: strawberry yield prediction; unmanned aerial vehicle; orthoimages; deep neural network; distribution map strawberry yield prediction; unmanned aerial vehicle; orthoimages; deep neural network; distribution map

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, Y.; Lee, W.S.; Gan, H.; Peres, N.; Fraisse, C.; Zhang, Y.; He, Y. Strawberry Yield Prediction Based on a Deep Neural Network Using High-Resolution Aerial Orthoimages. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1584.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top