Continuously accumulating information on vessels and their activities in coastal areas of interest is important for maintaining sustainable fisheries resources and coastal ecosystems. The speed, heading, sizes, and activities of vessels in certain seasons and at certain times of day are useful information for sustainable coastal management. This paper presents a two-dimensional vessel velocity estimation method using the KOMPSAT-5 (K5) X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system and Doppler parameter estimation. The estimation accuracy was evaluated by two field campaigns in 2017 and 2018. The minimum size of the vessel and signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) for optimum estimation were determined to be 20 m and 7.7 dB, respectively. The squared correlation coefficient R2
for vessel speed and heading angle were 0.89 and 0.97, respectively, and the root-mean-square errors of the speed and heading were 1.09 m/s (2.1 knots) and 17.9°, respectively, based on 19 vessels that satisfied the criteria of minimum size of vessel and SCR. Because the K5 SAR is capable of observing a selected coastal region every day by utilizing various modes, it is feasible to accumulate a large quantity of vessel data for coastal sea for eventual use in building a coastal traffic model.
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