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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1443; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091443

Evaluation of Semi-Analytical Algorithms to Retrieve Particulate and Dissolved Absorption Coefficients in Gulf of California Optically Complex Waters

1
Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada Km 103, 22800 Ensenada, BC, México
2
Centro de Investigaciones Oceanográficas e Hidrográficas del Caribe, Área de Protección del Medio Marino, Barrio Bosque, Sector Manzanillo, Cartagena de Indias, Cartagena 130001, Bolívar, Colombia
3
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, CA 92093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 31 August 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Ocean Colour)
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Abstract

Two semi-analytical algorithms, Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) and Garver-Siegel-Maritorena (GSM), were evaluated in terms of how well they reproduced the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton (aph(λ)) and dissolved and detrital organic matter (adg(λ)) at three wavelengths (λ of 412, 443, and 488 nm) in a zone with optically complex waters, the Upper Gulf of California (UGC) and the Northern Gulf of California (NGC). In the UGC, detritus determines most of the total light absorption, whereas, in the NGC, chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) and phytoplankton dominate. Upon comparing the results of each model with a database assembled from four cruises done from spring to summer (March through September) between 2011 and 2013, it was found that GIOP is a better estimator for aph(λ) than GSM, independently of the region. However, both algorithms underestimate in situ values in the NGC, whereas they overestimate them in the UGC. Errors are associated with the following: (a) the constant a*ph(λ) value used by GSM and GIOP (0.055 m2 mgChla−1) is higher than the most frequent value observed in this study’s data (0.03 m2 mgChla−1), and (b) satellite-derived chlorophyll a concentration (Chla) is biased high compared with in situ Chla. GIOP gave also better results for the adg(λ) estimation than GSM, especially in the NGC. The spectral slope Sdg was identified as an important parameter for estimating adg(λ), and this study’s results indicated that the use of a fixed input value in models was not adequate. The evaluation confirms the lack of generality of algorithms like GIOP and GSM, whose reflectance model is too simplified to capture expected variability. Finally, a greater monitoring effort is suggested in the study area regarding the collection of in situ reflectance data, which would allow explaining the effects that detritus and CDOM may have on the semi-analytical reflectance inversions, as well as isolating the possible influence of the atmosphere on the satellite-derived water reflectance and Chla. View Full-Text
Keywords: ocean color; inherent optical properties; remote sensing ocean color; inherent optical properties; remote sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Betancur-Turizo, S.P.; González-Silvera, A.; Santamaría-del-Ángel, E.; Tan, J.; Frouin, R. Evaluation of Semi-Analytical Algorithms to Retrieve Particulate and Dissolved Absorption Coefficients in Gulf of California Optically Complex Waters. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1443.

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