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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030486

On Signal Modeling of Moon-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging of Earth

1,2
and
1,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Imaging Theory, Techniques, and Applications)
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Abstract

The Moon-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (Moon-Based SAR), using the Moon as a platform, has a great potential to offer global-scale coverage of the earth’s surface with a high revisit cycle and is able to meet the scientific requirements for climate change study. However, operating in the lunar orbit, Moon-Based SAR imaging is confined within a complex geometry of the Moon-Based SAR, Moon, and Earth, where both rotation and revolution have effects. The extremely long exposure time of Moon-Based SAR presents a curved moving trajectory and the protracted time-delay in propagation makes the “stop-and-go” assumption no longer valid. Consequently, the conventional SAR imaging technique is no longer valid for Moon-Based SAR. This paper develops a Moon-Based SAR theory in which a signal model is derived. The Doppler parameters in the context of lunar revolution with the removal of ‘stop-and-go’ assumption are first estimated, and then characteristics of Moon-Based SAR imaging’s azimuthal resolution are analyzed. In addition, a signal model of Moon-Based SAR and its two-dimensional (2-D) spectrum are further derived. Numerical simulation using point targets validates the signal model and enables Doppler parameter estimation for image focusing. View Full-Text
Keywords: Moon-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar; Doppler parameters; signal model; image focusing Moon-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar; Doppler parameters; signal model; image focusing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Xu, Z.; Chen, K.-S. On Signal Modeling of Moon-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imaging of Earth. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 486.

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