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Open AccessArticle

Global Validation of MODIS C6 and C6.1 Merged Aerosol Products over Diverse Vegetated Surfaces

1
School of Marine Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
Earth and Atmospheric Remote Sensing Lab. (EARL), Department of Meteorology, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 45550, Pakistan
3
Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon 999077, Hong Kong, China
4
College of Geomatics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 475; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030475
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
In this study, the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collections 6 and 6.1 merged Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB) aerosol products (DTBC6 and DTBC6.1) at 0.55 µm were validated from 2004–2014 against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Version 2 Level 2.0 AOD obtained from 68 global sites located over diverse vegetated surfaces. These surfaces were categorized by static values of monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observations obtained for the same time period from the MODIS level-3 monthly NDVI product (MOD13A3), i.e., partially/non–vegetated (NDVIP ≤ 0.3), moderately–vegetated (0.3 < NDVIM ≤ 0.5) and densely–vegetated (NDVID > 0.5) surfaces. The DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD products are accomplished by the NDVI criteria: (i) use the DT AOD retrievals for NDVI > 0.3, (ii) use the DB AOD retrievals for NDVI < 0.2, and (iii) use an average of the DT and DB AOD retrievals or the available one with highest quality assurance flag (DT: QAF = 3; DB: QAF ≥ 2) for 0.2 ≤ NDVI ≤ 0.3. For comparison purpose, the DTBSMS AOD retrievals were included which were accomplished using the Simplified Merge Scheme, i.e., use an average of the DTC6.1 and DBC6.1 AOD retrievals or the available one for all the NDVI values. For NDVIP surfaces, results showed that the DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 AOD retrievals performed poorly over North and South America in terms of the agreement with AERONET AOD, and over Asian region in terms of retrievals quality as the small percentage of AOD retrievals were within the expected error (EE = ± (0.05 + 0.15 × AOD). For NDVIM surfaces, retrieval errors and poor quality in DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 were observed for Asian, North American and South American sites, whereas good performance, was observed for European and African sites. For NDVID surfaces, DTBC6 does not perform well over the Asian and North American sites, although it contains retrievals only from the DT algorithm which was developed for dark surfaces. Overall, the performance of the DTBC6.1 AOD retrievals was significantly improved compared to the DTBC6, but still more improvements are required over NDVIP, NDVIM and NDVID surfaces of Asia, NDVIM and NDVID surfaces of North America, and NDVIM surfaces of South America. The performance of the DTBSMS retrievals was better than the DTBC6 and DTBC6.1 retrievals with 11–13% (31%) greater number of coincident observations, 6–9% (14–22%) greater percentage of retrievals within the EE, and 30–100% (46–100%) smaller relative mean bias compared to the DTBC6.1 (DTBC6) at a global scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: AERONET; MOD04; AOD 550 nm; DT; DB; Merged AOD 550 nm AERONET; MOD04; AOD 550 nm; DT; DB; Merged AOD 550 nm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bilal, M.; Nazeer, M.; Qiu, Z.; Ding, X.; Wei, J. Global Validation of MODIS C6 and C6.1 Merged Aerosol Products over Diverse Vegetated Surfaces. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 475.

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