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Open AccessArticle

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Actual Evapotranspiration and Its Causes in the Hai Basin

by Nana Yan 1,*, Fuyou Tian 1,2, Bingfang Wu 1,2, Weiwei Zhu 1 and Mingzhao Yu 1,2
Key Laboratory of Digital Earth Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Olympic Village Science Park, W. Beichen Road, Beijing 100101, China
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 332;
Received: 2 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the eco-hydrological process. Comprehensive analyses of ET change at different spatial and temporal scales can enhance the understanding of hydrological processes and improve water resource management. In this study, monthly ET data and meteorological data from 57 meteorological stations between 2000 and 2014 were used to study the spatiotemporal changes in actual ET and the associated causes in the Hai Basin. A spatial analysis was performed in GIS to explore the spatial pattern of ET in the basin, while parametric t-test and nonparametric Mann-Kendall test methods were used to analyze the temporal characteristics of interannual and annual ET. The primary causes of the spatiotemporal variations were partly explained by detrended fluctuation analysis. The results were as follows: (i) generally, ET increased from northwest to southeast across the basin, with significant differences in ET due to the heterogeneous landscape. Notably, the ET of water bodies was highest, followed by those of paddy fields, forests, cropland, brush, grassland and settlement; (ii) from 2000 to 2014, annual ET exhibited an increasing trend of 3.7 mm per year across the basin, implying that the excessive utilization of water resources had not been alleviated and the water resource crisis worsened; (iii) changes in vegetation coverage, wind speed and air pressure were the major factors that influenced interannual ET trends. Temperature and NDVI largely explained the increases in ET in 2014 and can be used as indicators to evaluate annual ET and provide early warning for associated issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: actual evapotranspiration; ETWatch; remote sensing; cause analysis; Hai Basin actual evapotranspiration; ETWatch; remote sensing; cause analysis; Hai Basin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, N.; Tian, F.; Wu, B.; Zhu, W.; Yu, M. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Actual Evapotranspiration and Its Causes in the Hai Basin. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 332.

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